There are many varieties of Japanese tea, such as sencha, gyokuro, kabusecha (to name a few).
Learn more about the different kinds of teas here.
This one is very common and is the most popular. It uses leaves that remain in sunlight from when they sprout until they're ready to be picked.
After about 2-3 leaves start sprouting, they are kept out of the sunlight for 20 days. This tea has a very rich, concentrated taste.
The leaves are kept in the sun for half of gyokuro's time. This tea is the like the midpoint between Gyokuro and Sencha, with a fresh taste. It can be made using hot water, too.
This tea uses only the stems of the plants. Kukicha has a distinct soft, enjoyable, refreshing taste. It has the nickname of "karigane". The taste is similar to gyokuro, but it can be purchased for a cheaper price, so it's popular.
The mouth-refreshing Konacha is often seen after eating at sushi restaurants. It's very easy to drink as it's powder-based. It has a rich taste and the colors are bright.
A flavored tea that uses roasted brown rice blended with the leaves. Since brown rice is also used, there are less tea leaves and therefore less caffeine. The total rice and leaf content is almost the same as the leaf content of Sencha, Bancha, or Kukicha.
A tea for those favoring spiciness, it's boiled until it turns golden brown. Since there's almost no caffeine in it, it's very easy to drink and can be enjoyed by all ages.